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2016-08-05

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2016-08-03

最近澎湃刊发了一篇“网络监管从紧,剑指内容生产灰色地带”的文章。作者是复旦大学新闻学院教授张涛甫。

这篇文章中第一段重点标黑的文字是这样的:“门户网站在中国的崛起,是在技术、市场和政府的三重红利背景下成就的。假如没有制度利好和新媒介技术风口,门户网站是不可能迅速崛起的。当年的制度设计者,出于对互联网作为先进生产力的代表的美好预期,给予互联网得天独厚的制度偏好,本着先发展后规范的原则,赋予互联网企业空前的制度空间,让其在市场上享有宽松的制度环境。”

新媒体技术风口的确是门户网站崛起的重要因素之一。但这里面所谓的制度利好、美好预期、先发展后规范、宽松环境,其意是当时中国政策制定者,有意让其先发展,故作宽松。事实真的如此吗?

我们还是要回到二十多年前一探究竟。在日新月异的互联网时代,二十多年前在很多人眼里,算是“上古时期”了。

中国连入全球互联网的确切时间是:1994年4月20日,64k网络信道开通。这被国际上视为中国是一个能联入全球互联网的国家。这件事是当年中国十大科技新闻之一,在国家统计公报中列为1994年重大科技成就。

中国第一个WWW服务器是中科院高能物理研究所于94年5月建成的,并在这个服务器上推出中国第一套网页。后来从中孕育出“中国之窗”。

中国第一个BBS是1995年8月8日上线的水木清华,与高能物理研究所的项目不同,这个清华大学的内部论坛不是一个万维网应用,但属于互联网应用。

不过,对于普通民众而言,能够接触到互联网的标志性事件是1996年1月的中国公用互联网全国骨干网建成并开通。

就媒体应用来说,最早触网的,不是什么新浪搜狐,更不是什么人民日报新华社,甚至不是省级媒体,而是一个杭州市的地方报纸:杭州日报。93年它就搞了一个电子化的《杭州日报下午版》。

今天人们回望中国互联网时,通常想起新浪搜狐网易,或者是百度阿里腾讯,其实喝头啖汤的,恰恰是国有势力:一批国有媒体。

第一个真正意义上走上互联网的,是国家教委主办的《神州学人》,1995年1月。

第一个全国性日报开办网站的,是《中国日报》,1995年12月。

到了1996年年底,一共有30余种报纸跑到互联网上发行电子版,另外还有20家杂志,大部分也是国有媒体。

96年年底,央视开始上网尝试,到了1999年1月正式对外发布网站。1997年1月1日,人民日报在电子版之后,正式开通《人民日报》网络版,同日,国务院****建立了“中国互联网新闻中心”,这个中心后来开办了“中国网”。同年11月,新华社开通了新华网。1998年1月,光明日报开通网站。1998年12月,国际广播电台搞了一个“国际在线”。

中国政府真正意义上专门针对互联网的一个官方文件,是1997年3月国务院****就互联网开展对外新闻宣传问题的文件。因为当时互联网被冠以“国际互联网”,国内媒体搞电子版也好网站也好,就立刻和“国际”有关,自然是“利用互联网开展对外宣传”。

1997年这份文件,强调要统一通过中央对外宣传平台统一入网,后来觉得实在没操作性,在1998年10月,再次发文进行补充修改,允许申请独立域名,自建网站。

时任总书记的江泽民,在1999年一个会议上,做过要掌握先进传播技术手段之类的讲话,但那个会议的主题是:全国对外宣传工作会议。

可以这么说,刚刚开始兴起的互联网媒体应用,很大一块和“对外宣传”有关,当时的中国管理当局,是把它当成一个外宣口子来看待的。甚至一开始的想法甚至是统一管理,统一入口,完全是中心化的思路,与互联网去中心化背道而驰,谈不上是什么“先发展后规范,有意宽松”。

重点说说人民日报触网这件事,人民日报在国有媒体中的份量,世所共见。

人民日报触网发端于1995年10月,刚开始的做法是:把人民日报的信息放在新加坡的一个网站上,这是相当明显的外宣做法。

真正产生人民网,是1996年开始酝酿的人民日报网络版,推动者是蒋亚平。95年10月,他出任人民日报社信息化工作小组办公室常务副主任,筹办人民日报网络版。在担当这个职位前,他的身份是人民日报经济部工作的一个主任编辑,任农村组组长。从职位上可以看出,他绝非人民日报高层,算是一种中间骨干吧。

如前所述,1997年1月1日,人民日报开通了网络版,但一直到6月,国务院****才批准其进入国际互联网。在1997年到1998年这两年不到的功夫,人民日报相继弄了日文版、英文版。它当时承载的最重要的任务,就是把中国的声音传到世界。这一点,蒋亚平本人也不讳言:是代表国家与海外媒体竞争的一个重要阵地。

2000年8月,人民日报网络版改为“人民网”。到了这年年底,人民网的运营收入是:1000万元人民币。

而2000年的时候,有三家互联网公司以门户模式,分别于4月、6月和7月登陆纳斯达克,它们是:新浪(1998年12月创立)、网易(1997年6月创立,开始是做搜索的)、搜狐(1998年2月创立,开始是做搜索的)。

大致上,早期的互联网媒体就是如上所说发展。基本上两条线,各干各的。一路是国有媒体,一路是风险资本养大的互联网公司。国有媒体以外宣为重要任务,并不是以商业运作为主要目标。而互联网公司呢?有意思的地方就是,它们倒是拷贝了美国模式来中国,不过争夺的却是国内市场。

1999年,这两路人马其实有一场小小的冲突。4月份的时候,新浪搜狐网易等八家互联网公司开了一个中国ICP联合发展高层会议,传统媒体居然被拒之门外。这个会议后的八天,有23家传媒也聚集起来开会,通过《中国新闻界网络媒体公约》,以示不满。

中国政府真正意义上出手管理互联网媒体的,是2000年4月对外正式亮相的国务院****公室网络新闻管理局。这标志一个专门管理网络媒体的管理机构出现。

可以这么说,在这个机构出现之前,中国有关管理部门,从来没把互联网看做一个什么特别了不得的事物。

2000年7月,中宣部关于网络工作的“西山会议”召开。这个会议在国有媒体网络化的历史上占有重要地位。正是这个会议,做出了“新闻网站不得融资、不得上市”的决定。

这直接导致所谓的“千龙模式”的困境。这是北京地方上一次国有媒体的努力,集结九家媒体,共同打造所谓地方门户,但千龙模式中引入了一家非国有企业实华开1700万元的资本。为了清退这种“融资”,九家媒体不得不掏出真金白银来慢慢稀释掉实华开的股份。时任北京市委书记的****在10月视察千龙网时,专门指示“以九家新闻单位养千龙网为主”。

更长远的后果是,像人民网这种先行者,一直拖延到12年才上市。这距离西山会议,已经一十二年。

西山会议的根本在于,管理当局并没有意识到互联网对资本驱动的极大依赖性。要说是中宣部有意给市场化的互联网公司留出竞争空间,显然是不着边际的。一方面,像人民网这种国有媒体跑美国上市简直不可想象(在国内上市又没有利润支撑),另外一方面,其时大部分国有媒体远不像今天这般经济上的困窘。通俗地讲,就是不差钱。

然后,有人恰恰忘记了,资本融入后的互联网公司,是可以做员工持股的。员工持股之下,打了鸡血般地疯狂奋斗的力量,是绝不容小觑的。

这哪里是什么制度宽松、政策红利。

制度上,其实有关规定,还是给新浪这种公司造成了一点麻烦的。

中国在1993年时颁布的电信法规,禁止外国投资者介入电信运营和电信增值服务,网络信息服务这类增值服务,属于信息产业部的政策性指导意见中外国投资者不能进入的领域。

新浪搜狐网易都是网络信息服务商,为了既能在海外上市,又能躲开有关管理规定,新浪率先发明/使用了“VIE模式”。简单来说,就是国内公司拿资质,海外公司去上市。国内公司与海外公司之间是协议关系。

VIE模式后来成了大部分互联网公司登陆海外证券市场的通用模式。

2000年下半年的时候,不到两个月的时间,有五部法规出台。其中有三部法规,直接影响到互联网媒体公司:9月的《互联网信息服务管理办法》、11月的《互联网电子公告服务管理规定》和《互联网站从事登载新闻业务管理暂行规定》。

类似要获取登载新闻业务资格的网络媒体,都必须是内资公司,而这些公司纷纷海外上市,采用的都是VIE模式。

VIE模式并不是什么制度宽松、政策红利,纯属江湖自发草创。时至今日,依然属于带有灰色地带性质的“公开的秘密”。之所以有关部门没有明示VIE非法,主要还是对吸引外资这件更大要事的考量。

前文提到的这三项管理规定,影响深远。互联网信息服务管理办法,其实就是对ICP和ISP的规定,无论是ICP备案制度还是许可证制度,都依据于此。电子公告服务管理办法,看似针对BBS这种应用,其实后来所有的有UGC(用户贡献内容)性质的服务,比如微博、SNS、乃至微信,都用这个办法比照管理。而新闻业务,更是这次对商业门户原创栏目取消的依据。也是张涛甫教授行文的一个事件由头。

2000年的时候,根据CNNIC官方统计,中国网民规模为890万,互联网只是刚刚开始(虽然94年我们就连通国际互联网了),可以说依然是一个蛮荒之地,市场远远未能形成。

新浪搜狐网易虽然已经上市,但依然在盈利问题上苦苦挣扎。新浪在资本压力下炒掉了创始人,搜狐股价长期在1元以下徘徊以至于总市值竟然低于其现金保有量,网易甚至爆出所谓假帐丑闻,后抛出CFO顶缸了事。

真正推动他们盈利的,是中移动的梦网计划,也就是大名鼎鼎后来又被广为诟病的“SP业务”。到了2003年,移动梦网中仅短信业务一项即为中国移动及参与计划的400余家SP创造了超过百亿元的收入。

财报显示,新浪搜狐2003年所谓无线增值业务(就是SP短信)占整个收入的5成以上,网易也达到了4成多。

但这一份雪中送炭,不是什么网络媒体的制度宽松、政策红利。媒体一脉的管理部门,无论是党这条线的中宣部,还是行政线的国务院****,对SP业务,管理甚少,也没什么由头去管理这个领域。

一直到要到2005年,中国网民才算过亿。中国网络渗透率达到10%(占总人口的10%)的时间是:2007年1月,CNNIC宣布中国有1.37亿网民。

到了这个时候,中国互联网上的各种法律法规,已经层出不穷了。

总体来说,所谓意识到互联网这个先进生产力的,大抵都是业务层面的人才,不是什么管理最高当局。这些人才,有身处江湖互联网公司的,也有供职于体制内媒体的。不过这种意识,也是模模糊糊的意识,并不是说非常清晰地了解到互联网到底会如何如何。

互联网早期的发展,要说有人能高瞻远瞩,做顶层设计,有意如何如何,未免高看了人的智慧。坦率地讲,的确会有人认识到趋势性的问题,但要在政策制定这种带有操作性的细节问题——尤其是中国这种喜欢用门槛管理的国家——上故意搞点政策红利,不免有些今人的夸大。

2000年后,尤其是网民过亿后,从制度设计角度看,中国对互联网管理,其实文本上一直是从严要求的。至于有法可依下一步的违法必究还是不究,那就是另外一回事了。

2016-08-02

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2016-08-01

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